The explosion of summer colours - Additionals of the SS23

Additionals Spring.Summer 23 #5

26. April 2022

Although MUNICH FABRIC START and BLUEZONE couldn’t be realised physically in the end of January, we want to give our beloved exhibitors and long-term partners the chance to present their collections for Spring.Summer 23 online. We are presenting the most inspiring developments, prints and innovations in all our areas: FABRICS, ADDITIONALS, BLUEZONE, DESIGN STUDIOS, SOURCING & KEYHOUSE.

These Additionals’ developments by KAHAGE-Butonia Group, Landes Lederwaren, Panama Trimmings and REBIL Group Labeling & Packaging are a true explosion of colours. The newest collections of buttons, materials, trimmings & Co. include bio-based, plastic free, pure-dyed and 100% vegan materials.


KAHAGE-Butonia Group tries to escape reality for the Spring.Summer 23 season and presents new creative possibilities. A collection that, in addition to light and trendy polyester shapes, also largely consists of various recycled and organic materials. The focus is on the integration of eco and natural materials in classic summer shapes, as well as colorful and bold polyester, nylon and zamak buttons. All in all, a summery mix that invites you to dream.

www.butonia-group.comInstagram KAHAGE BUTONIA



Medike Landes’ Spring.Summer 23 collection intends to express personality and spirit through unique materials and creative finishing techniques. The global manufacturer of labels, trims, and accessories is proud to market and sell MIRUM™, a 100% bio-based plastic-free material available in a wide range of textures and colours. MIRUM is a high-performance solution for designers and brands looking to decrease their CO2-footprint and expand their creative palette. Landes also offers belts for men, women and kids in different price levels with BSCI, ISO and LWG certificate.



BLUE WOAD: a colour full of history! The color Blue has a very long history while the woad have played a key role for the spread of blue dyeing. Ancient Egyptians were the first to use it to obtain blue color. Nowadays, going back to the origins, Panama Trimmings is searching alternatives for synthetic colors which are polluting and harmful. Woad matches the need of natural, traditional, and pure dyeing.



As one of the most innovative labels and packaging producers for global fashion brands for over 70 years, REBIL Group now produces with the environment in mind by offering plant-based and 100% vegan raw materials from OLIVE industry waste. The goal? To provide sustainable and customisable silicon and leather fashion labels as well as other leather products.


Discover more Spring.Summer 23 developments from the ADDITIONALS manufacturers in the following blog articles:

This season’s sustainable buttons, zippers & Co. are colourful & trendy

ADDITIONALS Spring.Summer 23: certified bio materials meet the latest styles


Sporty, fresh, playful and sustainable: The newest Additionals developments are just that

Additionals Spring.Summer 23 #4

24. March 2022

Although MUNICH FABRIC START and BLUEZONE couldn’t be realised physically in the end of January, we want to give our beloved exhibitors and long-term partners the chance to present their collections for Spring.Summer 23 online. We are presenting the most inspiring developments, prints and innovations in all our areas: FABRICS, ADDITIONALS, BLUEZONE, DESIGN STUDIOS, SOURCING & KEYHOUSE.

The zippers, buttons, materials & Co. of the Spring.Summer 23 season are sporty, fresh, playful and sustainable. The newest developments of BODO JAGDBERG, Knopf Schäfer GmbH, MT – ND, QST Europe and Unizip combine functionality with extravagance, tradition and innovation and the best quality with new technologies.


BODO JAGDBERG is putting more emphasis on functionality this season as well as opulence and extravagance. The themes Flex-Leisure, Monochrome and All Day Active are manifested in both Mens and Womenswear ranges. Sporty elegant colors such as aqua glass, digital lavender and cashmere are becoming an absolute eye catcher. Real styling boosters such as Holographic and cosmic paper will set new standards.


Knopf Schäfer GmbH

Knopf Schäfer explored three summer themes: Hybrid Smartness – Tailoring remains top but casual and smart. Adventure Resort – Sporty aesthetics play with artisanal details. Active Performance – Functionality meets urban lifestyle. Matching buttons and accessories have been developed for all themes, with special highlights in shape, colour and finish. According to the importance of sustainability, the button expert is showing a comprehensive real corozo collection.



In a play of luminous facets, enveloping roundness and different fascinating tactility, each MT Fashion Factory accessory in the Spring.Summer 23 collection expresses the harmony of a unique style in balance between tradition and innovation. A short circuit of shapes, colors and materials that stimulated the imagination and expresses all the pleasure of making fashion.


QST Europe

QST Europe continues to focus on sustainability by offering a wide range of products made from recycled polyester, BCI and organic cotton. As well as the origin of the materials, the main focus is on quality and technologies. The performance knit alliance made of 100% Recycled Polyester offers both: it is engineered for mobility, moisture wicking properties and softness to the skin. Its light weight and flexible which makes it perfect for waistbands, pocketing and lining for active wear shorts, joggers, jackets and hoodies.



Unizip’s new collection shows the creative process from a sustainable perspective while keeping the connection to new summer trends for Spring.Summer 23. The zipper specialist’s aim is to create recycled zippers but also standard ones, playing with colors and new shapes. The offer ranges from basic zippers to new ideas which allow all customers to make their own customization. Innovation is the key.


Discover more Spring.Summer 23 developments from the ADDITIONALS manufacturers in the following blog articles:

This season’s sustainable buttons, zippers & Co. are colourful & trendy

ADDITIONALS Spring.Summer 23: certified bio materials meet the latest styles


Cool, modern, innovative: the ADDITIONALS of the hour

Additionals Spring.Summer 23 #3

3. March 2022

Although MUNICH FABRIC START and BLUEZONE couldn’t be realised physically in the end of January, we want to give our beloved exhibitors and long-term partners the chance to present their collections for Spring.Summer 23 online. We are presenting the most inspiring developments, prints and innovations in all our areas: FABRICS, ADDITIONALS, BLUEZONE, DESIGN STUDIOS, SOURCING & KEYHOUSE.

The labels, buttons, ribbons & Co. of the hour are cool, modern and innovative – this is shown by the latest developments of the MUNICH FABRIC START exhibitors Bornemann Etiketten, Creativ Knopf, Mokuba by Ribbon Line, Olimpias Group and Société Choletaise de Fabrication.

Bornemann-Etiketten GmbH

In the coming season, Bornemann-Etiketten follows the motto “Breaking new ground together” and is all about transformation. The digital service BRN.CREATE offers a new kind of digital product development, which is sustainable, intuitive and integrable. The new collection for Spring.Summer 23 shows innovative and sustainable materials and a wide variety of creative labeling options.

www.bornemann-etiketten.deInstagram Bornemann Etiketten


CK Creativ Knopf

This season, optimism is returning to fashion. The female body is celebrated with bold colors, transparency and short minis – Creativ Knopf accentuates these trends with brightly colored accessories, shiny metal finishes, decorative shapes and lovely details. In menswear, Spring.Summer 23 also shows a touch of fresh and lively colors. While the suit remains unchallenged in men’s fashion, the traditional monochrome looks give designers the option to follow tradition and rewrite it.

www.creativ-knopf.deInstagram Creativ Knopf


Mokuba by Ribbon Line S.L.

The three pillars of Mokuba‘s Spring.Summer 23 collection are: TO BE CONTEMPORARY – creating articles in harmony with the present time and following the fashion trends. TO BE UNIVERSAL – If articles are perfect in quality, style, colour, etc. it is obvious that sometimes, somewhere, someone will be inspired to create something original. TO BE PERFECT – perfection is something essential in our products.


Olimpias Group srl

Olimpias Spring.Summer 23 collection ranges from formal suits to techno, occasion, sustainable and casual jackets, prioritizing natural and technological interactions with sustainability. Glen checks, fil a fil, windowpane and micro structured designs are combined with soft pastel summer tones with bright classic blues, beige, brown and tobacco colors. Olimpias introduces sustainable labels for pants and denim like Jansen&Dekker – woven labels in cotton and GRS recycled Polyester. TIGER is the perfect set of labels for denim, tested for industrial washes, labels in GRS recycled Polyester Eu Origin, Oekotex certified silicon patches, pocket plaster and waistband patch in washable cellulose.


SCF - Société Choletaise de Fabrication

Inspired by the world of horse riding, Société Choletaise de Fabrication offers a collection of 200 textile accessories divided in 3 sections: Shoes accessories (shoelaces, boot hooks, fringes, stripes), Ready-to-wear accessories (laces, elastic laces, drawstrings sweatshirt, woven and breaded elastics) and Leather goods accessories (cords, braids, straps). Discover SCFL’s large range of products, almost all available in green materials.


Discover more Spring.Summer 23 developments from the ADDITIONALS manufacturers in the following blog articles:

This season’s sustainable buttons, zippers & Co. are colourful & trendy

ADDITIONALS Spring.Summer 23: certified bio materials meet the latest styles


This season's sustainable buttons, zippers & Co. are colourful & trendy


ADDITIONALS Spring.Summer 23 #2

7. February 2022

Although MUNICH FABRIC START and BLUEZONE couldn’t be realised physically in the end of January, we want to give our beloved exhibitors and long-term partners the chance to present their collections for Spring.Summer 23 online. We are presenting the most inspiring developments, prints and innovations in all our areas: FABRICS, ADDITIONALS, BLUEZONE, DESIGN STUDIOS, SOURCING & KEYHOUSE.

For the Spring.Summer 23 season the idea of colourful & trendy is standing out the most when it comes to trims, buttons, ribbons and labels. Unexpected and unique colour combinations and dazzling sparkles are what adds Spring.Summer 23 collections a contemporary style on top of the eco-friendly approach.



For the upcoming Spring.Summer 23 season, DEVETEX is focusing on natural, light & stretchy materials. In light of the current economic challenges, DEVETEX wants to support its customers not only with the creative input in terms of materials, colours and designs but also with improved service. Which is why many materials are available in the NOS program, from stock or with small MOQs.


Frameless Asia Pacific Limited

Spring.Summer 23 focuses on strong visual branding through the use of tactile surface textures and characterised by unexpected color combinations. Multifunctional accessories balance versatility with simplicity while sculptural shapes are bold yet minimalistic. Frameless Asia Pacific’s aim is to produce as sustainably as possible, recycling materials where possible and promoting the 3D visualisation capabilities on the Frameless Trim app to save unnecessary sampling.



The Spring.Summer 23 collection of Texcart gives you renewed joy: brightness, brilliance, dazzling sparkle. Light becomes tangible, transforming itself into matter through oleographic and reflective surfaces. Silhouettes have a relaxed vibe, the shapes interact with colors embracing them in regular designs, suitable for each garment.

TEXCART offers an eco-responsible collection too, made with certified eco-sustainable materials and techniques.



“Our values of innovation, diversity, knowledge and focus on solutions are always at the core of everything we do! Also when it comes to new materials and less wasteful and damaging processes.”

For the Spring.Summer 23 collection, Textra developed 4 new themes in which the company blends the 40 years of experience with new thoughts, innovation and sustainability.



Vostex loves to experiment with new, vibrant colors for their design concepts. The key is not to be afraid of using new color mixes & find a special way to create an interesting piece. Vostex’ unique palette is ideal for branding inspiration and design: Bold combinations infusing personality into collections that ooze contemporary style!


Additionals Novelties at FABRIC DAYS

At FABRIC DAYS from 1 – 3 September 2020, you will have the chance to meet your suppliers and partners in person again. Buyers, product developers and designers will be able to use the three days in Munich to create their collections, exchange ideas and collect inspiration. Besides an inspiring Trend Forum under the motto HOPETIMISM, around 300 exhibitors will present their latest developments for Autumn.Winter 21/22. Save your ticket now for FABRIC DAYS!

Discover here four of the participating exhibitors in the Additionals area:



Bornemann-Etiketten pursues the mission of “Driving Digitalisation”. For this reason, work on digital solutions is being continued: Virtual product presentations, 3D prototyping or cloud-based solutions. The Autumn.Winter 21/22 collection presents new exciting batches, patches, hangtags, zippers, transfers and much more – inspired by the busy life in Tokyo, the sophisticated sportiness of Zermatt and the creativity of the Andes. Contrasts play an important role: rough and smooth surfaces, transparency, matte black, exciting geometry. Bornemann also offers new sustainable qualities – currently for example a hangtag made of sugar cane paper or chenille embroidery badges made of recycled polyester.


Quality, innovation and sustainable materials are the basis for the Autumn.Winter 21/22 collection. The established Greenlining range, made from recycled PET and bamboo viscose qualities, has been expanded to include organic cotton types. The collection includes soft stretch touches, shiny finishes and versatile print designs with sportswear & camouflage effects.


Piovese Fashion, a family driven enterprise that has been handed down from the founder father to his two daughters who are currently head of the company, has been making artisanal and original accessories for over 30 years. At first it was specialized in the denim sector, but it has now set its sights on expending its production to the High Fashion world and classic attire for men and women. The latest FM 2021/2022 Collection was the perfect opportunity to introduce this important evolution through a graphic renewal – minimalist, sober and elegant – and highly innovative products.

The Company has also committed to becoming completely green by 2025, and has dedicated the greater part of its new collection to the production of eco-friendly accessories. In fact, over 80% of the Collection uses materials and manufacturing techniques with a low impact on the environment such as recycled leather, vegetable tanning, energy saving production processes, plant based dyes, recycled or completely natural paper, often created by making creative use of industrial residue material.


Union Knopf Menswear GmbH has used the time during lockdown to take on different perspectives and meet customers where they are.

Hence the new Autumn.Winter 21/22 collection can be showcased offline as well as online, in a virtual presentation room. In the new collection, the focus is on multiple takes on formal wear, which has been reimagined thanks to accentuating and functional clothing accessories.

VOSTEX – H1 | A 05

As every year, Vostex is looking for new ideas, designs and materials. For Autumn.Winter 21/22, the Greek fabrics factory has designed a premium trims & accessories collection with a unique personality and a strong identity. Working with a very rich colour palette, it is an invitation to travel through different universes and realities, conveyed by the season’s strong artistic tendency.




1 SEPTEMBER 2020 · 9.30 AM – 6.30 PM
2 SEPTEMBER 2020 · 9.30 AM – 6.30 PM
3 SEPTEMBER 2020 · 9.30 AM – 4.00 PM



MOC Munich | Halls 1 – 4 Ground floor
Lilienthalallee 40
D – 80939 Munich


Focus On Thrivability at MUNICH FABRIC START Spring.Summer 21


A new level of sustainability, digitalisation, transparency, a growing need for information and the desire to inspire - that's what the Spring.Summer 21 season stands for

The MUNICH FABRIC START with BLUEZONE, KEYHOUSE and the individual showcases presented by around 1,000 international suppliers of fabrics and additionals successfully introduced the Spring.Summer 21 season from 04 – 06 February in Munich. The approximately 18,400 international trade visitors were offered a broad spectrum of strongly positioned collections with innovative product and trend statements that demonstrated a new awareness of ecology and the increasing relevance of natural looks and resource-saving materials.

The MUNICH FABRIC START has shown very clearly that this fair format is convincing as a strong industry platform in times of changes and major challenges. Thanks to the professionalism and sovereignty of all those involved, the necessary responsibility to approach the reorientation of the market constructively and in a solution-oriented manner has been created. We have experienced this willingness in numerous discussions with exhibitors and visitors during the three intensively used days of the fair. We therefore feel confirmed in our current and future orientation.
Sebastian Klinder, Managing Director MUNICH FABRIC START

The design team of Boss Women emphasizes not only the good atmosphere but also the high-quality and quantitative offer:
We enjoy the relaxed atmosphere here in Munich. All the important suppliers are on-site, so we can work excellently. The main topic is of course sustainability and the correspondingly wide range of natural materials such as linen as one of the favourites for summer 21. There are also very innovative jerseys, bondings and neoprene knittings as new and exciting materials.

This was also confirmed by Theresa Austin, Advisor AKOJO MARKET, Co-founder Paris UIUX, LVMH Group Digital:
I thoroughly enjoyed my time at Munich Fabric Start. The Bluezone and Keyhouse, in particular, were eye-opening for me and I was very impressed at the number of suppliers working with innovative new technologies and methods to produce in more sustainable ways. It was a great showcase of sustainable innovation and it was very inspirational to speak with so many experts on such a key topic. I left both motivated and educated, with a lot to share back into my work.

Further background information on the main theme, the innovations of the season and the trade fair highlights can be found on our HOMEPAGE and in the PREVIEW PRESS RELEASE. High-resolution pictures can be found in the PRESS GALLERY.


The guiding theme THRIVABILITY met the current mood of the industry, in which future-oriented entrepreneurial spirit meets enthusiasm and a changing understanding of values.

In Munich, it became very clear that the era of sustainability is currently determining all talks and discussions in the textile industry. The tenor seems unanimous: The industry is on the right track and now it is time to take responsibility, turn information into action and create transparency.

Claudia Lanius, Lanius, highlighted the positive approach to a new form of open-mindedness:
The largest portfolio of sustainable products is on display here in Munich. Such a broad spectrum in this density cannot be found anywhere else. All major suppliers are on-site. In addition, there is an excellently staffed accompanying program of panels and discussion rounds. The acceptance of sustainable topics is increasing all the time, which is a very positive development overall. This is also reflected in the competent awards for articles in the ReSOURCE Area.

The increasing interest in sustainability, certifications and future-relevant topics confirms Franziska Dohrmann, GOTS:
Our contact to major brands is clearly increasing and the interest in certified articles is growing. Already on the first day of the fair, we recorded a strong visitor frequency with very good discussions. The increasing acceptance is also reflected in the highly attended lectures of the ReSOURCE Forum.


The different aspects, innovations, collaborations and communication concepts were also the focus of the numerous well-attended side events at KEYHOUSE, the ReSOURCE Area and BLUEZONE.

As a trade fair organiser, we also see ourselves in the role of an impulse generator that can generate a corresponding reach. Therefore, we attach particular importance to a qualitative and varied supporting programme which, thanks to international experts, offers an insight into current innovation topics, problems and solutions and thus forms the basis for transparent knowledge transfer.
Frank Junker, Creative Director MUNICH FABRIC START

Right at the start on Tuesday morning, trend forecaster David Shah addressed precisely these challenges in his enthusiastic Keynote „The 10 Design Pillars of Design“. The publisher and CEO of View Publications drew scenarios of new retreat possibilities and the search for structures and simplicity in times of digitalisation and diversification.

The panel discussion on the subject of “Future Textile Supply Chain” with international experts also provided new thought-provoking impulses on how the textile chain can be transformed through sustainable solutions and networking. In addition to transparency, intensive communication with consumers and the development of technologies, product development, quality and aesthetics should not be forgotten as indispensable criteria.

The textile value chain is currently being radically rethought. Every company has to deal with these impulses and develop individual concepts. One thing is certain: in the future, too, only those companies will be successful whose fashion fascinates and who act in an economically sensible manner. Digital processes, decentralized production, smaller batches, shorter lead times, comprehensive transparency and new circular business models – it remains exciting to see which of these developments are scalable and when. One thing is certain: now is the right time to develop principles for dealing with the new perspectives for your own company. In view of these fascinating prospects, a 90-minute expert panel on “Future Textile Supply Chain” is just enough to scratch the surface of the new possibilities.
Alexander Vogt, Kern. Consulting


Knowledge, transparency, quality, responsibility and communication influence the current multitude of product and process innovations.

Linen, both pure and blended with cotton, is the big favourite for the season Spring.Summer 21. Other material innovations were super-stretch silk, recycled polyester, Ecovero-Tencel linen, Naia and Cupro fibre blends or hemp textiles – the constant reference to natural fibres and surfaces was clearly visible.

The theme of Li Edelkoort’s exclusive trend seminar underlines this statement. In her two-hour “Green Wave” lecture, the internationally renowned trend expert presented her interpretations of Spring.Summer 21. Here, too, a rethinking of natural materials and looks was clearly evident. In her outlook on Autumn.Winter 21/22, she favours White as a global colour, on which new structures, styles and designs are based.

BLUEZONE – Reject egoism. Create ECOISM. Rewrite your future

The denim industry is facing new challenges, which the Blue Community faced as an optimistic and international community at BLUEZONE under the ECOISM theme.

The strong network of over 100 major international brands and numerous denim experts was looking for answers to a conscious consumer approach and a growing interest in ready-made solutions that offer future-oriented products, state-of-the-art technological processes and complex functionalities.

Current topics that determine the denim market were discussed in depth in lectures and international panel discussions. The Rivet 50 Talk on the topic of “2020 Vision” on the first morning of the fair gave an outlook on companies, technologies and fashion in the next decade. One of the key statements highlighted the changing demands of consumers – stationary retail can only survive with new concepts, such as offering sustainable fashion, vintage, and repair stores under one roof. This is precisely why the denim community must move closer together.

Alberto Candiani von Candiani confirms that the community spirit of the ECOISM guiding theme determines the future:
ECOISM – I love the concept, the slogan, the theme of this year’s BLUEZONE. It’s about green innovations, which must be visible and tangible, and about consumers who are better informed than ever before and are looking for a new way of consuming. We, as the Blue Community, are responsible for a massive change that will transform what is considered a “polluting” industry into a green model based on sustainable innovation and circularity. Denim can be seen as the most popular, “democratic” and perhaps “invasive” fabric ever made on the planet – and we, the Ecoists, want to change denim to become the representative flag for this revolution.


The think tank of MUNICH FABRIC START offered concrete approaches for a future-oriented textile and fashion industry. Information, transparency and interaction stand for an inspiring network of innovative projects and sustainable collaborations.

Munich Fabric Start’s advanced platform, KEYHOUSE, has been paving the way into the future for some time now, connecting innovators and the industry. The innovation space, which brings together game changers and pioneers, successfully gives traditionalists in the textile industry a glimpse of the future. KEYHOUSE provides the space for superstars of fashion technology to present new technologies, sustainable developments, expert workshops and trend seminars. I would easily describe KEYHOUSE as the “Department of Innovation” for fashion companies.
Muchaneta Kapfunde, Founding Editor-in-Chief

In her keynote speech “Rethinking the business of fashion”, Muchaneta Kapfunde called for a rethinking within the fashion industry. The change is possible and necessary due to the influence of digitalisation and technology. Examples of fundamental changes are block chain transparency, compostable packaging, on-demand solutions and the production of textiles based on dairy products.

In the panel discussion of Sportswear International, international experts discussed how automation, digitalisation and localisation will change the global fashion market and what impact these new standards will have on CSR issues and sourcing structures.

Once again, the SUSTAINABLE INNOVATIONS Area at KEYHOUSE, curated by Simon Angel, received great attention. He emphasized above all the openness of the visitors to the complex topics, to new materials and material extraction. He said that particularly pleasing was the willingness to exchange ideas, form networks and thus strengthen the community of all those involved within the textile and fashion industry.

 The Keyhouse has a unique energetic atmosphere with very inspiring visitors. Especially exciting was the great interest in holistic sustainable concepts that go into depth. So the industry is definitely on the right track
Chandra Prakash, Founder & CEO Cocccon

The future of the textile industry was not only discussed in the seminars and lectures – the MUNIQUE MOODS party on the first evening of the fair also provided an opportunity to strengthen the community and exchange information. Around 1,500 guests gathered in an elaborately staged and specially built palace tent.

MUNICH FABRIC START – A Paradigm Shift Towards Holistic Sustainability

A new level of sustainability, digitalisation, transparency, a growing need for information and the desire to inspire
– that’s what the Spring.Summer 21 season stands for.

The awareness of a new ecology has become one of the strongest social movements. It challenges us to rethink, to take responsibility, to create transparency and to enter into an intensive dialogue.

The MUNICH FABRIC START with BLUEZONE, KEYHOUSE and the individual showcases presented by around 1,000 international suppliers of fabrics and additionals will introduce the Spring.Summer 21 season from 4 – 6 February in Munich. Approximately 20,000 trade visitors will have access to an extensive range of fabrics, additionals, designs, manufacturing services, supported by an informative and inspiring events programme.

The Spring.Summer 21 season is characterised by dynamism, waves and radiance – the guiding theme THRIVABILITY brings enthusiasm, creates excitement, let’s blossom and flourish. THRIVABILITY deconstructs our understanding of fashion and embeds a new, positive way of thinking: aesthetics and people see eye to eye; resources and nature are respected. This creates a new understanding of holistic sustainability and future-oriented entrepreneurial spirit. Spring.Summer 21 answers current market needs and reflects an evolved understanding of values. Knowledge, transparency, quality, responsibility and communication influence the current showcase of innovative product and processes on offer. THRIVABILITY combines the essence of this new era with a classic definition of trends and cultivates an inspiring and progressive direction for materials, fashion and design.


ASK THE EXPERT – Communication islands with THRIVABILITY experts.
Taking into account the focus on sustainability and innovation driven by THRIVABILITY, a new information concept will be integrated into the Trend Forum at the upcoming MUNICH FABRIC START. At various communication islands in the foyer of the MOC, industry experts will provide impulses and answers to current questions, from the origins of the material to exploring the diverse range of production processes and end garment recycling. Through direct discussions, you will gain valuable know-how, insights into topics and current solutions for both sustainable and innovative processes along the value chain:


In addition, MUNICH FABRIC START has implemented a newly developed icon guidance system which in the spirit of transparency, identifies the sustainable and technical aspects of all the material highlights presented in the Trend Forums. In this way, visitors can establish these respective and previously hidden properties of textiles and ingredients at a single glance.

AWARENESS AS A DRIVER OF INNOVATION. Around 700 suppliers present their creative new developments across more than 1,000 collections – based on the latest technology innovations and the conscious and conservative use of resources. The fashionable combination of natural and innovative fibres is reflected in numerous new textile qualities including: luminous surfaces, wet gloss looks, soft glazes, colour gradients, transparent qualities, abstract patterns and relief elements. This season, MUNICH FABRIC START once again unites textile producers with a huge range of state-of-the-art fabrics, presenting not only essentials such as cotton, viscose, wool, elastane, lace and linen, but also novelties such as super-stretch silk, recycled polyester, Ecovero-Tencel linen, Naia and Cupro fibre blends or hemp textiles.

TRIMS FOR FUTURE – this is the global motto which represents approximately 200 of the world’s leading international ADDITIONALS suppliers. Fashionable new developments revolve around iridescent surfaces, glowing yarns and electrifying colour applications. The focus is on recycled and sustainably produced products in natural colours. ITL Group will not only show its comprehensive range of products for the first time, but will also launch its C.A.R.E. Collection (Conscious, Affordable, Responsible, Eco-friendly labels) during the upcoming trade fair. Clic sums up these developments: “We have focused on realistic and organic articles that preserve nature both in form and texture”.

In a comprehensive forum, the ReSOURCE Area categorises and presents around 800 sustainably produced articles by exhibiting fabrics and additionals producers. “With our ground breaking DryIndigo® technology it is now possible to produce denim with 0% water consumption”, Tejidos Royo describes its latest milestone. Bornemann Etiketten sees the biggest challenge in balancing creativity, sustainability and efficiency, while Dutel focuses on timeless and durable top quality. Lanificio Roma pursues resource saving process solutions with the aim of wasting less and reusing production and consumption waste as new resources.

Natural colours based on sustainable dyeing techniques now determines the colour palettes of the inspiring designs at the internationally renowned, textile designers and trend offices in the DESIGN STUDIOS. The current change in the textile industry is leading to a revolution in the printing and dyeing industry and inspires a revival of natural dyes. Design Union and Primus Pattern also emphasize the simultaneous closeness to nature and diversity of textile prints for Spring.Summer 21.

Ready-made solutions are becoming more and more important and the interest in sourcing providers close to the market is also growing with a focus is on speed and a reduction in complexity. As globally established manufacturing companies in the SOURCING Area, numerous high-quality newcomers such as Easy Invest Solutions or Union 3 Fashion offer comprehensive insights into the entire textile production chain and its reliable procurement management. For Spring.Summer 21, Cascade Enterprises takes its inspiration from nature and returns to the basics in prints, fabrics and silhouettes. Sourcing specialist Fateks Kumas Tekstil offers and processes fabrics made from recycled PET bottles, also to conserve resources.

As the think tank for innovation, KEYHOUSE provides insights into future fabrics, new technologies, smart products & processes, sustainable innovations and alternative material resources, offering and inspiring pioneering concepts. For more information click here.

With over 100 major international brands, BLUEZONE has positioned itself as the initiator of an extraordinary, strong and innovative denim community. The answer to a conscious consumer approach and a growing interest in ready-made solutions that offer revolutionary products, state-of-the-art technological processes and complex functionalities. For more information click here.


At the upcoming MUNICH FABRIC START, there will be a premium event programme featuring impressive panel discussions, polarising keynotes and trend seminars by international experts. The KEYHOUSE in Hall 5 will feature exciting lectures on the various subjects of innovation. The diverse events on offer in the BLUEZONE area of Hall 7 will provide an in-depth insight into the developments in the denim industry, while the ReSOURCE Forum in K3 in the MOC will offer an equally relevant programme on the topics of sustainability, certification and quality seals.

David Shah about „The 10 Design Pillars” – Tuesday, 4 Feb 2020, 10.30am – 12pm
The trend forecaster and publisher of Textile View will deliver the keynote “The 10 Design Pillars”. David Shah presents new perspectives on design influences from Slowbilisation to Hopepunk, from Biophilia to Datascapes.

Fashion Revolution – Tuesday, 4 Feb 2020, 12pm – 1pm
Ariane Piper gives an insight into Fashion Revolution – how the campaign will revolutionize the fashion industry. The viral campaign “Who made my clothes” will once again feature in the trend forums as an installation for transparency in the fashion industry.

Expert panel about „Future of the Textile Value Chain” – Tuesday, 4 Feb 2020, 2pm – 3.30pm
The panel discussion with expert participants on the subject of “Future of the Textile Value Chain” will be moderated by Jana Kern and Alex Vogt from KERN Consulting. The five international experts, including Prof. Dr. Michael Braungart, Hans H. Jung, David Shah, Jan Wilmking and Lauren Zahringer, will discuss the disruption and transformation through sustainability and networking in the textile value chain.

Rivet 50‘s 2020 Vision – Tuesday, 4 Feb 2020, 3pm – 4pm
What will the new decade bring for the denim industry and community? Rivet 50 will lead a discussion between some of the world’s most influential denim characters to discuss their predictions for business, technology and fashion.

Exclusive Trend Seminar by Li Edelkoort – Tuesday, 4 Feb 2020, 4pm – 6.30pm
Arguably the most famous trend forecaster of our time holds an exclusive trend seminar. In an impressive presentation, GREEN WAVE – the Fashion Trends for Spring.Summer 21, as GREEN BOOK – the Recreationwear Trends for Spring.Summer 21, as well as STILLNESS – a Full Colour Forecast for Autumn.Winter 21/22.

„Fashion Activism” Panel by Muchaneta Kapfunde – Wednesday, 5 Feb 2020, 11am – 12pm
FashNerd founder Muchaneta Kapfunde brings together the experts Kresse Wesling, Styliani Parascha, Marta Waydel and Marina Toeters as part of the panel discussion “Fashion Activism: Creating the Fashion of the Future.”

Hessnatur Stiftung about „The way to the green button“ – Wednesday, 05 Feb 2020, 11am – 12pm
Rolf Heimann, CEO of the Hessnatur Foundation, Institute for Applied Sustainability, explores in a lecture the question “How do I prepare my company for certification?”.

„How automation will change the fashion industry” – Wednesday, 5 Feb 2020, 2pm – 3pm
The five experts in technology, David Schmelzeisen, Ralf Schneider, Dr. Thomas Fischer, Jon Zornow and Sabine Kühnl will discuss “Don’t be afraid of robots – how automation will change the fashion industry” in a panel discussion. Automation, digitalisation and localisation are the trends that are reshaping the global fashion market. Is the fashion industry ready to adapt to new standards? What consequences does this have for the current procurement structure, also in terms of social responsibility?

“The data behind today’s winning marketing strategies” – Wednesday, 5 Feb 2020, 5pm – 6pm
Gina Gulberti, VP Digital Marketing at Launchmetrics, explains in her keynote “The data behind today’s winning marketing strategies”.

All dates and the complete events programme can be found here.

04 February 2020 | 9.30am – 6.30pm
05 February 2020 | 9.30am – 6.30pm
06 February 2020 | 9.30am – 4.00pm

04 February 2020 | 9.30am – 6.30pm
05 February 2020 | 9.30am – 6.30pm


Discover a selection of the latest suppliers and manufacturers to join the presentation of Fabrics, Additionals, Design Studios, Denim and Sourcing to showcase their collections for Spring.Summer 2021 in Munich. Register to attend now.

Forza Tekstil takes the expectations of their business partners to the next level by offering flexibility in production and perfect quality. The Turkish company is specialized in printed and plain fabrics, like viscose, viscose mixtures, cotton, linen, polyester and Tencel fabrics while adhering to the principles of productivity, sustainability and environmentally friendly production.

Section 2 | Stand F 208

Shanghai Saite Silk was founded in 2004 as an incorporated company within the formation of the state-owned Shandong ZiBo No.2 silk weaving factory. We commit ourselves to designing, producing and selling women’s fabrics in the fields of silk, viscose and polyester.

Artrium 3 | Stand C 112

Telater creates with its long-lasting experiences and knowledge of raw materials and production techniques exclusive collections of fabrics and fashion with high quality. We are continuously evolving, visiting national and international fairs and catwalks in order to offer fabrics and designs aligned with the latest tendencies in the industry.

Hall 3 | Stand B 04

T-Style unites more than 1500 employees who work successfully every day on the development, production and improvement of high-quality knitwear made of cotton, viscose, polyester yarns and their blends. The company produces more than 20 tons of fabric per day – such as single jersey, pile fabrics, plush, interlock, ribbed textiles or fleece.

Section 2 | Stand E 224

Universal Textile produces underwear, outerwear, home textiles and upholstery fabrics since 1998. With a fabric production capacity of up to 60 tons per day, we offer outstanding services to brands from all over the world. We produce our fabrics in our own facilities in accordance with internationally recognized quality standards.

Section 2 | Stand E 221

Having entered the zipper sector in 1988, ECE Zipper has been running at its modern plant with 20.000 m2 closed site and its qualified staff in Avcilar Firuzköy, Turkey. ECE Zipper is an integrated establishment with its narrow weaving unit, modern dye-house, casting-house where special pullers are designed and produced with advanced technology machinery.

Hall 1 | Stand E19

Elements Printing and Packaging

With over 12 years of experience in the trims and packaging industry supplying high quality products to a vast variety of domestic and international brands, we as Elements Printing and Packaging strive to give the best service to our customers. By remaining responsive to our customers’ needs and expectations, we are able to continuously adapt our business.

Hall 1 | Stand B15

Harmanci Label, as one of the leading label manufacturers in Turkey, serves to the biggest worldwide brands since 1931. Harmanci follows the needs of the sector as well as the fashion trends by producing woven, printed, screen printed and heat transfer labels and narrow woven ribbon in modern and environmental-responsible premises.

Hall 1 | Stand A 20

ITL is a global provider of Apparel Label Solutions supporting brands, retailers and manufacturers globally with a comprehensive range of products and services aimed at optimising brand identity and supply chain performance. Launching at Munich Fabric Start is their C.A.R.E Collection: a range of Conscious, Affordable, Responsible and Eco- Friendly labels that never compromise on quality or aesthetics.

Hall 2 | Stand A 19

Linx Europe

Linx EU Newly developed collection made of recycled materials: outer fabrics, linings, trimmings. The focus is on sustainability and function alike. Mechanical functionality paired with innovative sustainable finishing variants. The fusion of fashion and function without limitation of hand feel and colour!

Hall 2 | Stand A 12

Sun Etiket is one of Turkey’s leading label and package design and -production companies providing services to national and international brands. Sun Etiket specialises in creating highly advanced, experiential labels and packaging since 1986. With over 150 experts in our team, we constantly focus on every brand’s uniqueness and strive to make the brand experience even more inspiring.

Hall 1 | Stand C 12

For over a decade, Denim Masters have worked in partnership with a variety of fashion brands as their denim apparel manufacturer of choice. Utilizing long-lasting tailoring expertise and traditional construction methods, our tailors and seamstresses create handmade garments of top quality at highly competitive prices.

Hall 7 | Stand B 06

Borkro Textile Wash LTD with its long-time experience in the textile industry, organizes and manages textile production in Bulgaria offering a complete range of women’s and men’s denim products, starting from pattern development to prototypes and from collections to bulk production. Furthermore, they are able to offer an extended variety of wash procedures and techniques which establishes them as one of the leading manufacturing companies specialized in denim garments. Their major goal is to offer fast and effective service, competitive prices, high standards, constant quality and high flexibility.

Hall 7 | Stand c 07

Stylers International

With a patented machine design and dyeing process, Island Denim can dye all the cellulosic fibres and blends in the desired yarn count (1 Ne – 200 Ne). By doing so, Island Denim gives stamina to many manufacturers of woven and knitted fabrics a great deal of freedom in the use of indigo in the design of their products.

Hall 7 | Stand c 20

Jeanci Konfeksiyon Tekstil produces mostly washed textiles on behalf of its own brand. The products are mostly denim, canvas, gabardine, satin and poplin. Besides, the company executes the finishing of woven fabric and textile by washing, dyeing in piece and other added values for final products. Jeanci has been manufacturing on behalf of prestigious brands in Europe for the last 23 years.

Hall 7 | Stand A 18

Stylers Group creates advantages for denim brands through strengths in sourcing, speed, stitching expertise and service, when it’s time for your jeans to take a step ahead – in fashion, sustainability and profitability.

Hall 7 | Stand B 03

Design Union is a textile print design studio producing unique contemporary fabric designs for fashion and interiors. The constantly evolving portfolio of silk screen and digital prints includes embroideries using vintage fabrics. The digital textile designs are sold to you as Photoshop PSD files in layers.

Section 1 Design Studios | Stand E 102

Primus Pattern is a textile design studio founded by Claudia Böhm. The qualified illustrator and owner of a studio in the heart of Munich is a creative researcher and conceptual partner in finding an excellent fitting and timeless design. Claudia Böhm combines drawn botany and geometry with handmade stylistics.

Section 1 Design Studios | Stand E 105

Design Union

Care Applications works to reduce the environmental impact generated by the garment industry through new methods and devices. These developments are designed to optimize and modernize existing garment washing and dyeing machinery thus bringing improvements, savings and versatility. Within the Dye & Safe project, thanks to our advanced micro-nebulization metering device called ECOFinish together with our technical experience, we have been able to produce a traditional garment dye with exceptional penetration and evenness while using a minimum amount of water and greatly reducing the environmental impact. Care Applications offers this garment dyed with an even and penetrated standard dyeing process through the ECOFinish nebulization system saving 60% of water, 80% of energy and 99% of salt.

Hall 5 | Booth 23

A circular fashion industry is a regenerative system in which garments are able to circulate with maximum value retained for as long as possible before being able to re-enter the system through reuse or recycling. Therefore, we provide state of the art research, expertise and practical assets through workshops and software tools that help your brand transition towards circular practices.

Hall 5 | Booth 38

CLO Virtual Fashion creates cutting-edge 3D garment visualization technologies that cultivate a more creative and sustainable landscape for the fashion industry. CLO’s robust simulation engine allows you to create styles with countless layers and intricate details, which consistently solve glaring obstacles in your product life cycle.

Hall 5 | Booth 32

Recover works on the development of a closed-loop industry by offering brand, retail and factory partners a closed-loop solution for end-of-life waste management. The open-end spinner working for 7 decades with recycled cotton fibres is using textile waste as raw material to create new premium upcycled yarns. The Spanish company combines two resource and energy efficient processes – fibre upcycling and colour blend – to create new dye free upcycled fibres with accurate colours without using water or chemicals.

Hall 5 | Booth 15

A circular fashion industry is a regenerative system in which garments are able to circulate with maximum value retained for as long as possible before being able to re-enter the system through reuse or recycling. Therefore, we provide state of the art research, expertise and practical assets through workshops and software tools that help your brand transition towards circular practices.

Hall 5 | Booth 33

Cascade Enterprises is a cost effective, fully integrated, design-to-manufacture solutions service provider. The company offers ready-to-wear apparel to renowned retail and e-commerce fashion brands globally. We sample, source, plan, monitor and facilitate timely deliveries of high-quality goods that are ethically sourced.

Atrium 3 Sourcing | Stand D 110

Dragon Group Limited is an export-oriented company founded in 2001 and specialized in the development, manufacturing and distribution of fashion accessories. The company owns two factories for gloves production and at the same time has created partnerships with over 30 manufacturers of fashion accessories specialized in hats and scarves production.

Atrium 3 Sourcing | Stand D 108

Raith Textiles is a factory with GOTS and Oeko Tex certificate, producing baby- and children wear as well as women night wear for private labels.

Atrium 3 Sourcing | Stand D 104

Easy Invest Solutions is a manufacturer and exporter of high-quality men’s and women’s blouses with 20 years of experience. We supply both CMT as well as full product services, having among our suppliers the best of Italian, European and worldwide fabric producers. The company uses modern machinery and an automatic cutting system from Lectra. Prototype and sampling services are available as well as pattern creation and alteration and washing facilities for garment treatments.

Atrium 3 Sourcing | Stand D 110

For 30 years now, Union 3 Fashion is a leader in women’s fashion, designing and manufacturing ready-to-wear garments. We are one of the largest export production units in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, exporting our products to many well-known clothing companies across Europe. Excellent customer service, competitive prices, best quality standards, quick production lead time, reliability and punctuality are among our main objectives.

Atrium 3 Sourcing | Stand D 105

Not At All Buttoned: Relying on Nature and Sustainability

Sustainability and value are at the top of the agenda for the button manufacturers. Natural materials as well as new, recyclable materials are even more in focus. The number of certifications for ecological and sustainable products and production methods has also increased even further for the manufacturers of buttons and additionals.

Union Knopf, for example, displays vegetable-colored walnut buttons as well as buttons and trim made from 100% Social Plastic, a material made from recycled plastic waste.

“Not more but better” – true to this motto Creativ Knopf extends the collection of high-quality natural materials. For a fashion-conscious customer who is increasingly looking for longer-lasting garments. Grades of shades of brown, colors such as spice stalls oriental markets and soft shades of gray support the tendency to soft, natural and haptic pleasant materials. Classical music is reinterpreted. Traditional designs are unexpectedly implemented and modernized.

The menswear continues to be influenced by retro influences. So cultivated Easyness and modern comfort from the sportswear at Creativ Knopf dominate the trends. Both the classic and casual casual looks benefit from it. Thus, freedom is created to continue the drive of menswear. Black becomes a minimalist matter of course when combined with elegant gray shades. New shades of brown become a futuristic-feeling entity through their combination of accent colors.

Rosenfelder also pays great attention to sustainability in addition to an extensive range of buttons made of natural materials. Thanks to constant research and development in the field of high-quality plastic materials, it has been possible to replace the conventional polyester resins contained in the material with new, eco-friendly bio-based binders. Furthermore, a proportion of recyclable waste is added to these materials.

Photocredits: Knopf & Knopf, Union Knopf, Creativ Knopf, Rosenfelder

Strong Themes, Progressive Formats & New Areas

MUNICH FABRIC START with BLUEZONE, KEYHOUSE and the individual presentations of over 1,000 international suppliers of fabrics and additionals once again sets new standards in concept forecasting. The current format has been expanded, complemented and deepened in terms of both quality and quantity. On September 3-5 2019, a broad spectrum of fabrics, additionals, prints or denim, manufacturing services and a supporting programme will be on offer to the 20,000 trade visitors expected in Munich, offering unprecedented dimensions of information and inspiration.

‘Over the last few years we have successively expanded the exhibition space. We have supplemented BLUEZONE with the CATALYZER, the KEYHOUSE is successfully established as a think tank and now, we will relaunch the ever essential area of SOURCING. With this evolved structure we are focused on the strategic approach of showcasing new fields of inspiration in a unique, exclusive and appropriate setting. We look forward to presenting three trade fair days with an unparalleled range of products and topics, offering the industry many new products, innovative process solutions and cutting-edge material resources.’
Sebastian Klinder, Managing Director MUNICH FABRIC START


  • Trend Presentations take on a brand new form in the MOC.
  • – The ReSOURCE Area in front of Hall 4, Area K4, has once again been extended and establishes itself as the centre for sustainable fabrics and additionals with proven expertise and know-how.
  • – A special opening will be the SOURCING Area in the newly opened Hall 8, directly opposite the MOC.
  • – The KEYHOUSE, as a think tank of MUNICH FABRIC START, spans the fashion spectrum from technology to sustainability, from digitalisation to new material resources and manufacturing processes, offering a wealth of cutting-edge research projects, inspiring collaborations and high-tech product and process developments.
  • – Future-oriented: the new SUSTAINABLE INNOVATIONS Forum at KEYHOUSE, curated by Simon Angel.
  • – The ALL RELATED COLLAB PROJECT by BLUEZONE is an innovative concept for future collaborations and network cooperation.
  • The HighTex Award will be presented for the 7th time. The MUNICH FABRIC START Innovation Prize honours outstanding initiatives and commitment in the fields of intelligent process solutions, innovative highlights, biotech, digitalisation and sustainable innovations.
  • – The start of the side event program will mark the start of the fair on Tuesday 3rd of September, SusTECHability – HOW TRENDS & TECHNOLOGY INFLUENCE SUSTAINABILITY IN FASHION with an expert panel.
  • – In the afternoon on the 3rd of September Li Edelkoort will introduce the latest shapes, textiles and colours for Autumn Winter 20/21 in an exclusive trend presentation. Providing the first glimpse of the colours for Spring Summer 21 and point to the comeback of Casual Wear with Recreation.

BEYOND AWARE – Global trend

BEYOND AWARE, the overarching trend theme for Autumn 20/21 analyses the multi-layered levels of awareness on different planes of perception – personal, global, regional, mental, rational, emotional and transcendental. It’s all about self-awareness and contemplating the status quo. BEYOND AWARE stands for a new way of thinking and rethinking that goes far beyond our previous understanding of fashion.
It’s about more than just fashion!
BEYOND AWARE calls for the observation and very responsive reaction to the changes in consumer and clothing habits – one that is dynamic, attentive and bold. Combined with the demand for change in trends as well as values, which is currently manifested in two ideological concepts. On one hand is Bold Expressions presents an individual, very enthusiastic lifestyle and fashion style. On the other hand is Forward Ethics for conscious, responsible consumption. Two very different concepts that polarise and attract attention. The affirmation of BEYOND AWARE.


Winter fabrics will feature woolly, new-twist classics, comfort and aesthetics coupled with modern casualness. Most manufacturers are now focusing their collections on sustainably produced goods and processes. Sustainability has become a natural part of the upstream stage. New consumer awareness and transparency have led to fundamental shifts. Both in fabrics as well as colours trends, not least in the styles expected. More than 800 international fabric suppliers hosted in the FABRICS areas at MUNICH FABRIC START will demonstrate the versatile and individual ways this trend can be understood and translated. Sometimes progressive, classic or sporty, sometimes masculine or with new femininity. Often with a voluminous, soft finish. But always with the greatest possible lightness.
Perfectly coordinated buttons, striking zippers, decorative rhinestone appliqués, individually designed labelling. The latest creations for buttons, ribbons, decorative stones, fasteners, lace, embroidery and labels will be presented by over 200 leading international suppliers of additionals and accessories for Autumn Winter 20/21 in the ADDITIONALS Area of MUNICH FABRIC START.

Design Studios
Inspiring print designs and creative energy are provided by the most important international textile designers and trend agencies hosted in the DESIGN STUDIOS at MUNICH FABRIC START on the firstFLOOR. Setting impulses for future prints, always in search of the special and truly unique.

The launch of the SOURCING Area in the new Hall 8 of the recently opened Business Club Munich opposite the MOC provides direct connection to MUNICH FABRIC START and BLUEZONE. Over 80 international apparel manufacturers and producers will be showcasing their services for womenswear, menswear, accessories, corporate, couture and tailored segments among others, at this independent and suitable space thus meeting the growing demand for manufacturing services.

‘The idea of this new segment is based on creating an inspiring and efficient atmosphere in a contemporary and high-quality setting. And thus also a unique environment for network communication and work. With the new SOURCING area we can now map the textile supply chain at one location in Munich.’
Frank Junker, Creative Director MUNICH FABRIC START

The exhibiting companies include established manufacturers from Portugal, Tunisia, Morocco, Italy, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Hong Kong among others.

>> Check Brand List

Awareness of ecologically sustainable certificates and seals of quality is on the rise. With ReSOURCE, MUNICH FABRIC START has established a broad sourcing platform that provides sustainable solutions for innovative and future-oriented production processes. Supported and established by experts, the forum offers concrete solutions informing visitors about relevant developments and the latest standards through a series of seminars and lectures, in a bid to bring together potential cooperation partners. In Area K3/4 of Hall 4, ReSOURCE will be showcasing over 600 innovative articles certified and/or produced in an environmentally friendly way.

In the emerging circular economy of the future, nothing is treated as waste. What is left over from one process becomes input to another, so keeping it circualting. Refibra technology gives a second life to pre-consumer cotton waste from garment manufacturing – which would otherwise be sent to landfills or incinerated – by upcycling it into brand new cellulosic fiber materials for clothing and home products. In a special installation, Lenzing will showcase closed-loop recycling with its complete production process for TENCEL™ x REFIBRA™ at the ReSOURCE area.

Through personal discussions on site, visitors can learn key details about the respective certificates and seals directly from the responsible certification organisations and institutes. The entire portfolio of innovations shown in the ReSOURCE Area is available all year round on the new website: